The Logic of Slavery (Cambridge Studies in American Literature and Culture)

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Debt, self-redemption, and foreclosure -- 3. Machines inside the machine: slavery and technology -- 4. The hands of others: sculpture and pain -- 5. The sonic veil -- 6. Slavery in the mind: trauma and the weather Control code Dimensions unknown Extent 1 online resource x, pages File format unknown Form of item online Isbn Level of compression unknown Media category computer Media MARC source rdamedia Media type code c Other physical details illustrations.

Quality assurance targets not applicable Reformatting quality unknown Sound unknown sound Specific material designation remote System control number OCoLC Library Locations Map Details. Curtis Laws Wilson Library Borrow it. Library Links. Circulation Services Databases Staff Directory. Embed Experimental. Layout options: Carousel Grid List Card. Include data citation:. The alternation between benevolent paternalist and virulent racist is especially stark in this novel.

The black is inextricably part of the white e. One reason for thinking that this stark dualism is more than a passing curiosity is that the novel goes out of its way to encourage the suggestion that Moreland himself has passed over the barrier that God has created. The tie between Claudia and slave revolts is in fact more than just incidental.

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A full-blown assault on abolitionist sanctimony and irresponsibility, the novel comes close to echoing abolitionist attacks on Southern patriarchy for its sexual criminality and hypocrisy. Of course, there is a further sense in which Hentz may not be critiquing plantation society so much as taking its premises to their natural conclusion.

He turned into my master, my tyrant! In a rather surreal way, the novel keeps suggesting that an insistence on hierarchy leads to a wholesale erosion of social distinctions — which of course is just what paternalist ideology promises. However much it may mystify or cloak patriarchal violence, paternalism necessarily presupposes its existence. This is not to say that the contest between helpless innocence and savage fury disappears. It is, rather, located elsewhere. The angry passion in the master that is subdued by the trust of the weak and helpless is never 62 Imagining Equality altogether dispelled in the weak and helpless.

Features so perfectly synthesized in the person of the master — the fearful exercise of power and its pleasurable surrender — become, in the case of the wife no less than the slave, an unstable compound of warring elements. It is as though those characteristics reserved for the slaveholder have been reassigned to his various dependents in exaggerated, distorted form — as though, indeed, the basic features of paternalism could not be assembled in narrative form without beginning to stray and fall apart.

Eugene Genovese and other historians have frequently reminded us that paternalism, more than simply a mythology concocted by Southern intellectuals, did in fact have a far-reaching impact on the life of the plantation. Chronicling the intersecting fate of two families, the slaveholding Montroses and the mercantile Brownes, the novel stitches together regional connections by marrying Southern daughters to Northern sons and Southern sons to Northern daughters.

But rather than favoring Southern magnaminity over Northern thrift, McIntosh is worried that the options have become too polarized. The son of the Northern merchant fares no better: George Browne is a financial speculator, ultimately the villain of the tale, whose dealings make it difficult to say where business ends and extortion and thievery begin. Too long dependent on slave labor, Donald can no more discipline his desires than his finances; when he impetuously presses marriage on his cousin Alice, it is made clear by both the narrator and the other characters that his quasi-incestuous passion is both unseemly and overwrought.

Too long dependent on himself, Robert Grahame, self-made millionaire industrialist and eventual hero of the story, is on the other hand portrayed as a workaholic who suffers from too little impulsiveness instead of too much; when it comes time for him to propose matrimony to Alice he can barely muster the presence of mind to pull it off II, In the best manner 64 Imagining Equality of a wise mediator, McIntosh suggests there is plenty of blame to go around, but not so much so that the excesses peculiar to one region might not offset and correct the excesses of the other if judiciously brought together.

The Lofty and the Lowly contains, to be sure, the usual assortment of proslavery motifs: the slaves rejoicing at the return of the master and mistress I, ; Southerners regarding with disbelief anti-slavery reports of cruelty and torment on the plantation II, ; abolitionists trampling over the rights and wishes of servant and master alike II, 98, —70 , and so forth. But protracted and bitter debates among whites over the peculiar institution are avoided altogether by McIntosh, just as sustained evocations of a deeply felt emotional bond between white and black are minimized.

In this respect, the book follows the precedent of the plantation novel, preferring to keep slavery on a comparatively low profile. Hiring himself out as a laborer to help Alice and her mother, Cato affords McIntosh the opportunity to detail the indignities of Northern racism II, Hentz, on the other hand, marries off her planter to his Northern bride within the first ten chapters of the narrative.

The contrast to McIntosh is symptomatic: in order to overcome the division between North and South Hentz is finally compelled to go beyond matrimony and appeal to the differences between white and black. It assigns to Eulalia, the white woman of the North, the role of cleansing the stain of patriarchal indiscretion. Forging the bond between the slave states and free on the altar of racial purity, Hentz tacitly abandons the color-blind defense of slavery such as espoused by Fitzhugh and other proponents of the positive good school of thought.

The theme of male improvidence, irresponsibility, and loss of self-control overpowers the proslavery novel, at times threatening to eclipse its ostensible mission altogether. Never mind that this is a far better description of the white women in the novel, whose sadism drives their servants to suicide and infanticide; never mind, too, that the husbands of these sadists are portrayed as impotent bystanders too cowardly to intervene. It is not hard to see why. In underwriting claims that the peculiar institution is above all a benevolent institution, paternalism makes male aggression a problem in need of a solution.

More often than not, the pro-slavery novel is so preoccupied by the problem that it forgets about the prescribed remedy. But, alas for Inequality in theory 67 the former! So even as Eastman includes scenes we might expect to find on the pages of The Liberator e. Harley, who endures without complaint the humiliation and neglect that come with supporting an alcoholic husband. Harley, in the throes of despair, orders her to gather the children so the family can all commit suicide together.

Those who find it important to sort through the hegemonic and counterhegemonic implications of literary texts will have their hands full with the proslavery novel. This is of a piece with a book that enthuses over all the blessings slavery confers upon the helpless Negro and what a cruel fate mere freedom would be, but that also includes the kindly planter Mr. Perhaps one day the Lord will come around, but for the time being those willing to entertain the possibility of being against slavery must remain for it.

The sufferings of the countess would make him weep, the sufferings of a seamstress a quite another matter. The wishful merger of two opposed belief systems, paternalism undertakes to raise an edifice of inequality on egalitarian foundations. In the case of the pro-slavery novel this project barely gets off the ground before it is sidetracked by other pursuits that involve everything from demonizing blacks to assailing white male privilege or anatomizing class inequities. Although we think of Southern paternalism as embodying something like the very quintessence of ideology — the happy slave the textbook case of false consciousness — in point of fact the proslavery novel can barely rise to the accusation of distorting reality, so undisguised are its conflicting imperatives and so muddled its final message.

A popular sentiment on both sides of the sectional divide in the antebellum United States held that slavery, if left to its own devices, would die of its own accord. Southern conservatives obviously understood themselves to be pursuing the second path, though just as obviously failed to see how far they strayed from it.

For if the whole point of guardianship is, as Dahl notes, that the rulers are exempt from the defects of those they rule, this is precisely what the paternalism of the antebellum South, with its appeals to the chastening power of the weak and helpless to subdue the strong, does not provide. In the end that is why the Southern theory of class is in reality no theory at all, unless the affirmation that somebody needs to rule and others need to be ruled counts as a theory.

The family would seem a more promising 70 Imagining Equality candidate for sanctioning the hierarchies the pro-slavery argument wished to uphold, but even here equality slips through the back door, so to speak, for the point where social necessity ends and loving bonds begin is the point where the discourse of inequality gets alchemized into the discourse of equality.

It seems to follow almost trivially from the standard idea that equality places people side by side, revealing a common tie. As we might expect, Tocqueville teases out the importance of this development by painting a vivid, highly simplified picture of the opposite condition. Through that personage he was linked, without realizing it, to all the rest. If the famous frontispiece to Leviathan had shown the king literally composed of the bodies of his subjects, here each of these subjects would likewise contain multitudes.

In this universalizing of representativeness literature has its own role to play. Although interchangeable selves and generic souls are nowadays likely to call to mind the dystopian landscapes of postmodern fiction, the relation between such constructs and the literary imagination need not be purely adversarial. The next chapter explores the influence of the social whole — the many in the one — in a somewhat more formative sense, beginning with the figure of the common reader. By definition a composite of many different individuals, the common reader of course stands for the general, the typical, the average, the conventional — in sum, the anticipated or projected response of that imagined totality.

With the idea of reading, particularly as it relates to works of the imagination, thought to bear a privileged relation to the whole, acts of writing are in contrast linked to the part — to something less than the whole. In lieu of simply debunking claims to representativeness, then, I want to take them seriously enough to explore their consequences. The many in the one Chapter Four engages the topic of envy, where such claims are simultaneously assumed and contested.

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With the envious, that is to say, appeals to a social norm of some kind are both crucial and tendentious; the presence of the many in the one is a source of anguish and outrage. A dominant force in the literary marketplace of antebellum America, she is inevitably if unkindly remembered as the Emmeline Grangerford of her day, churning out child elegies and various other forms of sentimental commemoration.


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Her poetry is hard to think about. Open her Select Poems at random and you will likely 75 76 Imagining Equality come upon a poem on the death of a close relation — mostly infants, sometimes mothers, and occasionally daughters, sons, and fathers — written in stately, curiously aloof blank verse.

Sigourney makes no attempt to bring the events home to her own experience, and does not seek wording that will bestow the significance of uniqueness on the recounted event. As we are told, the reason why some objects are more suitable for literary representation than others — why, say, the sounding cataract or the Indian lament is preferable to a swamp or the harangue of a local politician — is because some objects are more evocative of emotions — awe or melancholy, for example — thought to be distinctly aesthetic in nature.

Literary pleasure, in other words, works by capitalizing upon a collection of pre-existing, utterly repeatable responses. What would a literature look like that explicitly privileges the collective over the individual in this way? What would be the consequences of treating experience deductively, as proceeding from the whole — the representative, the generic, or the typical — instead of the part? And how would this preference affect ideas about authorship, interpretation, and meaning? Recent The precise spirit of the average mass 77 developments in the scholarship are beginning to help us think past the opposition whereby the general and abstract is taken to signify nothing more than an effort to mask the interests of the particular and concrete.

I start with the discourse of literary nationalism and its reliance on the aesthetic theory known as associationism, which, as Theo Davis has demonstrated in an important study, offers us a useful way of thinking about the primacy of typical experience in American letters.

Taking its lead from empiricist epistemology and treating ideas as built up from simple, discrete bits of sense impressions, literary nationalism takes it for granted that the building blocks for any literature must be a storehouse of objects, each stamped, as it were, with readily identified and commonly shared emotions. Nor is it reducible simply to evoking American landscapes. By implication, then, the success or failure of a national literature has ultimately less to do with the skill of the author than with the conditions of reception. Its underlying logic is such that it renders the difference between authors and readers hard to see.

If a text, painting, or piece of music operates, that is to say, by setting in motion a pleasing chain of associations, each one building upon the other and creating a momentum of its own, then the chief responsibility of the artist is to get out of the way. The creator does not create so much as prompt. At the heart of associationist theory is a resistance to dividing the world between originators and receivers, creators and respondents. Nevertheless it is pointedly the author who needs to stand aside, not stand out, a lesson that upstarts like Southey and Wordsworth might also take to heart, for, according to another reviewer, both give off a disinclination to consult the precise intellectual tone and spirit of the average mass to whom their works are presented … [T]heirs is a poetry of soliloquy.

They write apart from and above the world. Their original object seems to be the employment of their faculties and the gratification of their poetical propensities. As Bryant himself puts it, To us there is something exceedingly delightful in the reckless intoxication with which this author surrenders himself to the enchantment of that multitude of glorious and beautiful images that come crowding upon his mind, and that infinity of analogies and relations between the natural objects, and again between these and the moral world, which seem to lie before him wherever he turns his eyes.

The writings of no poet seem to be more the involuntary overflowing of his mind. Where Wordsworth is interested in the flow of feeling as part of the composition of the self, Bryant is interested in the overflow — that alone is what matters. The very likeness of individuals, which rules them out as subjects for poetry on their own, helps the poet to group them in imagination and make a coherent picture of the nation as a whole.

Associationist theory proves congenial to the nationalist not only because it offers a lexicon for codifying the experience of converging perception but because it affirms that this convergence may in itself be a source of aesthetic pleasure. By implication acts of writing are aligned with the part or individual unit; they bear the impress of agency that must be suppressed or transcended. Acts of reading, in turn, encompass the whole; they lend themselves to the general, abstract, or universal.

In the early years of the nineteenth century, the paradigmatic case of this sort of free-floating affect would invariably concern loss and mourning. Adopting a tone of heightened reserve that runs counter to common assumptions about self-indulgent emotionality, her consolation verse, with its iconography of polished brows, tinted cheeks, and fervid limbs, resolutely keeps us on the outside. More to the point, perhaps, Sigourney works from a finite, well-defined, and stable stock of recurring images and highly stereotyped scenarios. Inevitably, the constant recycling of themes and motifs creates an impression of interchangeable parts; her practice of quarrying poems from previously published books and recombining them into separate volumes dedicated to a specific topic like temperance Water-Drops, , ships at sea Poetry for Seamen, , flowers The Voice of Flowers, , or famous American places Scenes of My Native Land, simply instances on a larger scale a procedure that can be seen at work in the composition of individual poems.


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  6. Inevitably, too, as one reads of infants cloaked in floral imagery and of flowers suffering an early death, the reader cannot avoid forming the impression of an ur-Sigourney lyric, a hidden template from which variations are spun off. For, not to be too crude about it, in the baby we have the prototypical type, a human being who is not yet fully a person, a presence devoid of, well, presence. Judged according to the needs of a truly democratic literature, the infant makes a natural fit, capable of generating volumes of feeling while retaining no real identity. Whatever experience we may ascribe to the child is largely prospective and therefore hypothetical; like the gems of the literary nationalist that are strewn about or immediately underneath the ground, it is experience that has not yet been claimed.

    Since there is no psychology to penetrate, no essence to distill, no separateness to overcome, the dead child seems the very emblem of an impersonal, generalized subject. As much at home on the prairie as in the literary salon, in the local newspaper as in the expensive gift books of the antebellum period, written by professors at Harvard and native women on the reservation, collected and circulated among family members on the farm and in the city, it forged, with its quaint diction, lockstep rhythm, and stilted mannerisms, a common literary idiom that cut across lines of gender, class, race, and region.

    Here was a theme, as Whitman might say, that was creative and had vista. Altogether the child seems less an object of love than wonder. In this way the child serves much the same purpose as the remembered landscape or resonant object. So The precise spirit of the average mass 87 marked is this speculative tone that it often becomes apparent that the more the mother contemplates the child, the more the two identities begin to mirror one another until they appear interchangeable, one no less impressionable than the other. SP, 91 The mother, oddly, is not watching the boy, but watching with him, as if the two, perfect equals, were jointly engaged in the same activity.

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    But perhaps this is nothing more than a stray impression — perhaps we are simply meant to infer that the mother, happy to be with her son especially in his distress, is keeping a watch on his condition. The degree to which the child sets off in the mother a chain of identifications is so pronounced that by the end of the poem it is impossible to say for sure if the child has in fact died or if the mother is in the grip of a fantasy that cannot be shaken. The result, especially in the latter case, can be wrenching, producing its own kind of strange beauty. She was my idol.

    Night and day, to scan The fine expansion of her form, and mark The unfolding mind, like vernal rose-bud, start To sudden beauty, was my chief delight. To find her fairy footsteps following mine, Her hand upon my garments, or her lip Long sealed to mine, and in the watch of night The quiet breath of innocence to feel Soft on my cheek, was such a full content Of happiness, as none but mothers know. The significance of the mother is to behold, to serve as a proxy for the reader — any reader.

    Her trance-like passivity in the opening lines e. Once again we see how the mother is less a privileged creator of life than an enthralled witness to its bringing forth. Interaction between mother and daughter is itself pared away, superseded by the bond between mother and reader as both are lost in the contemplation of a vanished object rich in remembered associations.

    In due time, of course, a third party does intervene. Hush thee, dearest. Gone to God! And yet I wish I had not seen the pang That wrung her features, nor the ghastly white Settling around her lips. I would that Heaven Had taken its own, like some transplanted flower Blooming in all its freshness. Be still, my heart!

    Sigourney does not go this far — in the end she wants to underscore rather than question the need to render back to God what rightfully belongs to him. Indeed, given the prepackaged moralizing that dominates so much of her writing, it can perhaps go without saying that she never sees her verse as a place for moral deliberation, much less the working out of moral conflict.

    From the standpoint of critics like Ann Douglas, this lack of theological seriousness is the root of the evil that is sentimentalism. To sharpen our sense of what is at stake here and cast it in a somewhat less judgmental light, it is worth shifting the topic slightly and looking at a strain of commentary fairly prominent in the literature of the child in this period.

    In the same vein, recent scholars investigating the social construction of childhood have documented the many ways in which children are manipulated and coerced by various forms of ideological control. Sigourney does not share this concern. As it turns out, the culprit responsible for this is God himself.

    Stay, winged thought! Art thou a friend? Thou wilt not answer me. Thou hast no voice For mortal ear. Thy language is with God. But what thou there in secrecy dost plant The precise spirit of the average mass 93 Stands with its ripe fruit at the judgment-day.

    SP, 84 With lighthearted earnestness, Sigourney sexualizes the associationist view that feelings and ideas operate by a will of their own, leaving the agent a baffled bystander. Rather, the mere fact that thought finds a host, takes on bodily form, and thereby becomes attached to a subject is enough to provoke consternation. Strange as it seems to put the two names in one sentence, Sigourney here captures what Nietzsche, a few decades later, would spend a great deal of time expounding — that morality requires an accountable agent capable of taking ownership of its beliefs and desires.

    They whisper to the heavens. Accusing the sentimentalist of moral shiftlessness thus begs the question of what kind of morality makes an appearance in her pages and why. The labor involved is nothing short of superhuman. Even her loved plants Breathed too distinctly of the form that bent The precise spirit of the average mass 95 With hers to watch their budding. Because imputations of significance are thereby flattened or leveled out, the interpreter is left, as it were, with no choice. This fluidity of association has its corollary in a stasis of character.

    Because Sigourney is very interested in types and not at all interested in the way individuals escape being typed, her characters cannot change. Stricken witnesses all, they do not act so much as exemplify. Even to say that these figures are meant to elicit our sympathy seems a mistake. To the extent that we are meant to identify with something, it is most obviously with a mood or an affect. We identify, as it were, with the spirit of identification. The bigger picture is all we have. Within he or she would have found a dozen untitled offerings of uncertain description poems?

    Prefacing these productions was an essay in double columns that seemed neither prose nor poetry but a crazy hybrid of each. The same could be said about the volume as a whole. Aside from what could be deduced from the copyright page and gleaned from a quick and seemingly flippant reference within the text, there was no mention of an author. Improprieties of diction, grammar, syntax, prosody, and modes of address, to say nothing of a shocking candor about everything from armpits to foo foos, round out the picture of eccentricity and willful innovation. Only then can you understand us.

    We are no better than 98 Imagining Equality you.

    Professor Tim Armstrong

    More pointedly, seeing Whitman as coming at the end of a tradition helps us account for what can only be called the peculiar extremism of his literary egalitarianism, a characteristic most notable in the determination of his verse not simply to affirm but to perform equality — to somehow actualize it on the page. If there is an obvious sense in which Whitman has every right to claim his place beside the other immortals in F. Have you reckoned the earth much?

    The precise spirit of the average mass 99 Have you practiced so long to read? Have you felt so proud to get at the meaning of poems? Stop this day and night with me and you shall possess the origin of all poems, You shall possess the good of the earth and sun … there are millions of suns left, You shall no longer take things at second or third hand … nor look through the eyes of the dead … nor feed on the spectres in books, You shall not look through my eyes either, nor take things from me, You shall listen to all sides and filter them from yourself.

    The poet does not settle upon, fix, master, demarcate, or stipulate meaning. Interestingly, this outlook produces a curious doublemindedness with respect to interpretation. On the other hand, inasmuch as the ultimate effect of encountering this text is to transcend it, interpretation is superfluous. It is not, in other words, meaning that drives the poem forward and gives it coherence. More often than not he is drawn to contemplate a general experience, theme, or rubric and then go on to fill in its particular manifestations: here are some of the things I see and feel when thinking about harvest-time Section 9 ; this is what I find myself imagining when I do nothing but listen Section 27 ; these are some of the divinities that come to mind when I think of honoring all modes of worship Section This practice of exemplification alternates with statements of a more didactic, syntactically forthright nature e.

    This alternating rhythm is established from the outset of the poem, where the declarative pronouncements of Section 1 shift quickly into a leisurely unfolding of stray impressions and sensory experiences recounted in Section 2. The most famous instance of listing various associations brought to mind by a simple object occurs in the meditation on the grass in Section 6, where the poet abandons himself to the drift of its connotations while expressly inviting the reader to do the same: A child said, What is the grass? I guess it must be the flag of my disposition, out of hopeful green stuff woven.

    Or I guess the grass itself is a child … the produced babe of the vegetation. The precise spirit of the average mass Or I guess it is a uniform hieroglyphic, And it means, Sprouting alike in broad zones and narrow zones, Growing among black folks as among white, Kanuck, Tuckahoe, Congressman, Cuff, I give them the same, I receive them the same. And now it seems to me the beautiful uncut hair of graves. Uncertainty liberates. If relics from the feudal past like the epic or the pastoral are direct, the leaves of the bard, rich with implication, are not.

    The aristocratic poet stipulates, the democratic bard suggests. As inequality stands to the direct and the determinate, equality stands to the indirect and the indeterminate. The beards of the young men glistened with wet, it ran from their long hair, Little streams passed all over their bodies. An unseen hand also passed over their bodies, It descended tremblingly from their temples and ribs. The young men float on their backs, their white bellies swell to the sun … they do not ask who seizes fast to them, They do not know who puffs and declines with pendant and bending arch, They do not think whom they souse with spray.

    Indeterminacy acquires a political significance because it diffuses authority so that the very idea of settling upon one meaning at the expense of another begins to look like an arbitrary imposition. In contemplating the array of The precise spirit of the average mass significances evoked by the text, the interpreter is free to choose not to choose. And if the reader and poet are equals, then it is of course a mistake to think that the poet shall dictate what the reader shall think. If the poet wants us to see that there are many meanings to the grass, then that intention is every bit as clear and as determinate as any other.

    If he wishes to fuse and confuse male and female desire to the point where they are hard to tell apart, then that too is a stable, fixed, and certain intention. They must be determinate in different ways. The answer most commonly given just rephrases the question: the poet wants to establish a non-hierarchical relationship between author and reader — he wants to bring to bear the ideals of equality on the interpretive process itself. But, again, why should he wish to do that? Although many people can see the point of striving for political or economic or social equality, the point of striving for hermeneutic equality is harder to see.

    Obviously considerations of equality are important when it comes to adjudicating matters such as access, fair exchange, or competing models of rationality, as Habermas has argued, but this is not really what Imagining Equality Whitman has in mind. It may begin to seem, then, as though equality has been imported into an area where it has no meaningful role to play. Whereas a Shakespeare or Milton might worry about inequality in the real world, only the democratic bard, it seems, feels compelled to take on the added burden of worrying about it on the page.

    And yet it is precisely this determination to encompass the whole that accounts for the ban against meaning. Meaning, irreducibly individual, partial, private, infringes on that wholeness. It betrays the presence of a single, possessive will. Uttering tongues drifting away from any discernible body, voices cut loose from any signifying intent: to write equality is to honor its radical senselessness. In such moments, the idea that the poet means many different things by representing an object is replaced by the idea that he becomes the object, dispensing with the need for representation altogether.

    Tocqueville never does isolate the phenomenon as such and examine it in a sustained way, perhaps for good reason. It is a polarizing topic. For every partisan of the Right who tells horror stories of the meanspirited have-nots dragging down the virtuous haves, we find partisans on the Left reluctant to concede that envy might be something more than a Imagining Equality crutch for capitalist apologists bent upon trivializing the grievances of the downtrodden. Beyond the controversies involved in simply identifying envy, then, there is the further complication of understanding its significance when thinking about the social whole.

    For envy is, at bottom, resentment triggered by departures from an undeclared norm. It wraps itself in the mantle of the typical, the average, or the normal, punishing those who stray from the fold. If, as we saw in the previous chapter, the priority of the whole over the part exercises a formative influence on the imagination of poets like Sigourney and Whitman, here the same influence may be observed to a more destructive and more far-reaching effect.

    Yet among these ordeals none is so harrowing as the prevalence of raw envy. Envy-avoidance is in fact a dominant theme in A New Home. Mary Clavers learns its lessons the hard way when her family is stricken by rheumatic fever and nobody in the area comes to their aid That they return the borrowed items worse for wear or destroyed altogether only serves to underscore the destructive urge traditionally associated with envy.

    To grant graciously what cannot be refused safely is in effect to pay deference to the power wielded by the community. Rivers to overcome her repugnance and do the same 65 , the motive is plainly not to make new friends but to make a show of their submission. In A New Home envy-avoidance consequently becomes something of an art that requires keen delicacy of judgment.

    Under normal circumstances and for all the obvious reasons this would seem to be a sound decision. In the opinion of the more experienced Mrs. One must work hard at not disturbing the self-deception so indispensable to those whose lives are ruled by resentment. To stay one step ahead of resentment, it is important to adopt the frame of mind of the resentful. The body electric: How strange machines built the modern American.

    Dolin, T. Palgrave , p. Bernhard, K. Routledge , p. The senses of modernism: Technology, perception, and aesthetics Armstrong, T. Murphet, J. Modernism and Technology Armstrong, T. Blackwell , p. Embodiment of a nation: Human form in American places. Literatures of memory: History, time and space in postwar writing Armstrong, T.

    Charles W. Chestnutt: Essays and speeches Armstrong, T. Literature and technology - Introduction Armstrong, T. Poetry and Science Armstrong, T. Roberts, N. Roelens, N. Thomas Hardy: Poems of Armstrong, T. Oxford: Blackwell , p. Two types of shock in modernity Armstrong, T. Winter Words Armstrong, T. Page, N. Oxford University Press , p. Thomas Hardy Recent studies Armstrong, T. American Bodies Armstrong, T. Reforming the Corpus Armstrong, T. New York University Press , p. Muting the Klaxon Armstrong, T.